OP-TEE on Raspberry Pi 3

Sequitur Labs did the initial port which besides the actual OP-TEE port also patched U-boot, ARM Trusted Firmware and Linux kernel. Sequitur Labs also pulled together patches for OpenOCD to be able to debug the solution using cheap JTAG debuggers. For more information about the work, please see the press release from June 8 2016.

Contents

  1. Disclaimer
  2. Upstream?
  3. Build instructions
  4. Known problems
  5. NFS boot
  6. OpenOCD and JTAG

1. Disclaimer

This port of ARM Trusted Firmware and OP-TEE to Raspberry Pi3

                   IS NOT SECURE!

Although the Raspberry Pi3 processor provides ARM TrustZone
exception states, the mechanisms and hardware required to
implement secure boot, memory, peripherals or other secure
functions are not available. Use of OP-TEE or TrustZone capabilities
within this package _does not result_ in a secure implementation.

This package is provided solely for educational purposes.

2. Upstream?

This is a working setup, but there are quite a few patches that are put on top of forks and some of the patches has been put together by just pulling files instead of (correctly) cherry-pick patches from various projects. For some of the projects it could take some time to get the work accepted upstream. Due to this, things might not initially be on official git’s and in some cases things will be kept on a separate branch. But as time goes by we will gradually move it over to the official gits. We are fully aware that this is not the optimal way to do this, but we also know that there is a strong interest among developers, students, researches to start work and learn more about TEE’s using a Raspberry Pi. So instead of delaying this, we have decided to make what we have available right away. Hopefully there will be some enthusiast that will help out making proper upstream patches sooner or later.

Project Base fork What to do
linux https://github.com/Electron752/linux commit: b48d47a32b2f27f55904e7248dbe5f8ff434db0a Three things here. 1. The base is a fork itself and should be upstreamed. 2. Apply patch arm64: dt: RPI3: Add optee node 3. We have cherry picked the patches from LSK OP-TEE 4.4
arm-trusted-firmware https://github.com/96boards-hikey/arm-trusted-firmware commit: bdec62eeb8f3153a4647770e08aafd56a0bcd42b This should instead be based on the official OP-TEE fork or even better the official ARM repository. The patch itself should also be upstreamed.
U-boot https://github.com/linaro-swg/u-boot This is just a mirror of the official U-boot git. The patches should be upstreamed.

3. Build instructions

  • First thing to pay attention to the OP-TEE prerequisites. If you forget that, then you can get all sorts of strange errors.

  • Follow the generic build instructions from the README.md file in this git. Note that the initial build will download a couple of files, like the official Raspberry Pi 3 firmware, the overlay root fs etc. However, that is only done once, so subsequent builds won’t re-download them again (as long as you don’t delete them).

  • The last step is to partition and format the memory card and to put the files onto the same. That is something we don’t want to automate, since if anything goes wrong, in worst case it might wipe one of your regular hard disks. Instead what we have done, is that we have created another makefile target that will tell you exactly what to do. Run that command and follow the instructions there.
    $ make img-help
    
  • Boot up the Pi. With all files on the memory card, put the memory card into the Raspberry Pi 3 and boot up the system. On the UART (for wiring, see section 6) you will see the system booting up. When you have a shell, then it’s simply just to follow the xtest instructions to load tee-supplicant and run xtest.

4. Known problems

We encourage anyone interested in getting this into a better shape to help out. We have identified a couple issues while working with this. Some are harder to solve than others.

4.1 Root file system

Currently we are using a cpio archive with busybox as a base, that works fine and has a rather small footprint it terms of size. However in some cases it’s convenient to use something that reminds of what is used in distros. For example having the ability to use a package manager like apt-get, pacman or rpm (dnf) to make it easy to add new applications and developer tools.

Suggestions to look into regarding creating a better rootfs

  • Create a setup where one use buildroot instead of manually creating the cpio archive.
  • Create a 64bit Raspbian image. This would be the ultimate goal. Besides just the big work with building a 64bit Raspian image, one would also need to ensure that Linux kernel gets updated accordingly (i.e., pull 64bit RPi3 patches and OP-TEE patches into the official Raspbian Linux kernel build).

Having that said, in the section below about NFS boot, we’ve been successfully using a Debian based Linaro root-fs.

5. NFS Boot

Booting via NFS and TFTP is quite useful for several reasons, but the obvious reason when working with Raspberry Pi is that you don’t have to move the SD-card back and forth between the host machine and the RPi itself. Below we will describe how to setup both the TFTP part and the NFS part so we have both ways covered. We will get kernel, optee.bin and the device tree blob from the tftpd server and we will get the root fs from the NFS server. Note that this guide doesn’t focus on any desktop security, so eventually you would need to harden your setup. Another thing is that this seems like a lot of steps, and it is, but most of them is something you do once and never more and it will save tons of time in the long run.

Note also, that this particular guide is written for the ARMv8-A setup using OP-TEE. But, it should work on plain RPi also if you change U-boot and filesystem accordingly.

In the description below we will use the following terminology:

HOST_IP=192.168.1.100   <--- This is your desktop computer
RPI_IP=192.168.1.200    <--- This is the Raspberry Pi

5.1 Configure TFTPD

There are several different servers to use, but in the description we’re going to use atftpd, so start by apt-get that package.

$ sudo apt-get install atftpd

Next edit the configuration file for atftpd

$ sudo vim /etc/default/atftpd

And change the file so it looks exactly like this, nothing less, nothing more!

USE_INETD=false
OPTIONS="--tftpd-timeout 300 --retry-timeout 5 --mcast-port 1758 --mcast-addr 239.239.239.0-255 --mcast-ttl 1 --maxthread 100 --verbose=5 /tftpboot"

Create the tftpboot folder and change the permissions

$ sudo mkdir /tftpboot
$ sudo chmod -R 777 /tftpboot
$ sudo chown -R nobody /tftpboot

And finally restart the daemon

$ sudo /etc/init.d/atftpd restart

5.2 Configure NFS

Start by installing the NFS server

$ sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server

Then edit the exports file,

$ sudo vim /etc/exports

In this file you shall tell where your files/folder are and the IP’s allowed to access the files. The way it’s written below will make it available to every machine on the same subnet (again, be careful about security here). Let’s add this line to the file (it’s the only line necessary in the file, but if you have several different filesystems available, then you should of course add them too).

/srv/nfs/rpi 192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)

Next create the folder

$ sudo mkdir /srv/nfs/rpi

After this, restart the nfs kernel server

$ service nfs-kernel-server restart

5.3 Prepare files to be shared.

We need to prepare and put the files on the tftpd and the NFS-server. There are several ways to do it, copy files, symlink etc.

5.3.1 Image, optee.bin and *.dtb

We’re just going to create symlinks. By doing so you don’t have to think about copy files, just rebuild and you have the latest version available for the next boot. On my computer I’ve symlinked like this (in my /tftpboot folder):

$ ll
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jbech  jbech         65 jul 14 09:03 Image -> /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jbech  jbech         85 jul 14 09:03 optee.bin -> /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/arm-trusted-firmware/build/rpi3/debug/optee.bin
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jbech  jbech         90 Sep 13 11:19 bcm2710-rpi-3-b.dtb -> /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/linux/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2710-rpi-3-b.dtb

5.3.2 The root FS

We are now going to put the root fs on the location we prepared in the previous section (5.2). The path to the filesystem.cpio.gz will differ on your machine, so update accordingly.

$ cd /srv/nfs/rpi
$ sudo gunzip -cd /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/build/../gen_rootfs/filesystem.cpio.gz | sudo cpio -idmv
$ sudo rm -rf /srv/nfs/rpi/boot/*

5.4 Update uboot.env

There are two ways to update uboot.env. First, you can edit build/rpi3/firmware/uboot.env.txt file, which is used as simple text source for generation of uboot.env during build and you can just edit u-boot env via UART and save new values to uboot.env. By using the second way you can avoid rebuilding and copying uboot.env to SD card.

5.4.1 Edit uboot.env.txt

All you need to do is to edit network configuration in build/rpi3/firmware/uboot.env.txt. You have to change value of serverip to the IP address of your NFS/TFTP server, gatewayip to your router IP address and nfspath to the exported path, where root FS is stored (/srv/nfs/rpi). Then you need to generate new uboot.env:

$ cd /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/boot/
# clean previous uboot.env
$ make u-boot-env-clean
# generate new
$ make u-boot-bin

Then you need to copy your newly generated uboot.env(it’s stored in ../out/uboot.env) to the BOOT partition of your SD card.

5.4.2 Edit u-boot.env via UART

Start by inserting the UART cable and open up /dev/ttyUSB0

# sudo apt-get install picocom
$ picocom -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB0

Power up the Raspberry Pi and almost immediately hit any key and you should see the U-Boot> prompt. First edit your NFS/TFTP server IP address:

U-Boot> setenv serverip '192.168.1.100'

Perform the same steps for gateway(your router IP address) and nfspath (the exported path, where root FS is stored, for example /srv/nfs/rpi)

If you want those environment variables to persist between boots, then type.

U-Boot> saveenv

And don’t worry about the FAT: Misaligned buffer address ... message, it will still work.

5.5 Network boot the RPi

With all preparations done correctly above, you should now be able to boot up the device and kernel, secure side OP-TEE and the entire root fs should be loaded from the network shares. Power up the Raspberry, halt in U-Boot and then type.

U-Boot> run nfsboot

Profit!

5.6 Tricks

If everything works, you can simply copy paste files like xtest, the trusted applications etc, directly from your build folder to the /srv/nfs/rpi folders after rebuilding them. By doing so you don’t have to reboot the device when doing development and testing. Note that you cannot make symlinks to those like we did with Image, bcm2710-rpi-3-b.dtb and optee.bin.

5.7 Other root filesystems than initramfs based?

The default root filesystem used for OP-TEE development is a simple CPIO archive used as initramfs. That is small and is good enough for testing and debugging. But sometimes you want to use a more traditional Linux filesystem, such as those that are in distros. With such filesystem you can apt-get (if Debian based) other useful tools, such as gdb on the device, valgrind etc to mention a few. An example of such a rootfs is a Debian based Linaro rootfs. The procedure to use that filesystem with NFS is the same as for the CPIO based, you need to extract the files to a folder which is known by the NFS server (use regular tar -xvf ... command).

Then you need to copy xtest and tee-supplicant to <NFS>/bin/, copy libtee.so* to <NFS>/lib/ and copy all *.ta files to <NFS>/lib/optee_armtz/. Easiest here is to write a small shell script or add a target to the makefile which will do this so the files always are up-to-date after a rebuild.

When that has been done, you can run OP-TEE tests, TA’s etc and if you’re only updating files in normal world (the ones just mentioned), then you don’t even need to reboot the RPi after a rebuild.

6. OpenOCD and JTAG

First a word of warning here, even though this seems to be working quite good as of now, it should be well understood that this is based on incomplete and out of tree patches. There are major changes in our U-Boot fork that add capability to load and execute ARM Trusted Firmware binary.

To enable JTAG you need to uncomment the line: enable_jtag_gpio=1 in rpi3/firmware/config.txt.

The pin configuration and the wiring for the cable looks like this:

JTAG pin Signal GPIO Mode Header pin
1 3v3 N/A N/A 1
3 nTRST GPIO22 ALT4 15
5 TDI GPIO26 ALT4 37
7 TMS GPIO27 ALT4 13
9 TCK GPIO25 ALT4 22
11 RTCK GPIO23 ALT4 16
13 TDO GPIO24 ALT4 18
18 GND N/A N/A 14
20 GND N/A N/A 20

Note that this configuration seems to remain in the Raspberry Pi3 setup we’re using. But someone with root access could change the GPIO configuration at any point in time and thereby disable JTAG functionality.

6.1 Debug cable / UART cable

We have created our own cables, get a standard 20-pin JTAG connector and 22-pin connector for the RPi3 itself, then using a ribbon cable, connect the cables according to the table in section 6 (JTAG pin <-> Header pin). In addition to that we have also connected a USB FTDI to UART cable to a few more pins.

UART pin Signal GPIO Mode Header pin
Black (GND) GND N/A N/A 6
White (RXD) TXD GPIO14 ALT0 8
Green (TXD) RXD GPIO15 ALT0 10

6.2 OpenOCD

6.2.1 Build the software

Before building OpenOCD, libusb-dev package should be installed in advance:

$ sudo apt-get install libusb-1.0-0-dev

We are using the Official OpenOCD release, simply clone that to your computer and then building is like a lot of other software, i.e.,

$ git clone http://repo.or.cz/openocd.git && cd openocd
$ ./bootstrap
$ ./configure
$ make

If a jtag debugger needs legacy ft2332 support, OpenOCD should be configured with --enable-legacy-ft2232_libftdi flag:

$ ./configure --enable-legacy-ft2232_libftdi

We leave it up to the reader of this guide to decide if he wants to install it properly (make install) or if he will just run it from the tree directly. The rest of this guide will just run it from the tree.

6.2.2 OpenOCD RPi3 configuration file

Unfortunately, the necessary RPi3 OpenOCD config isn’t upstreamed yet into the Official OpenOCD repository, so you should use the one stored here rpi3/debugger/pi3.cfg. As you can read there, it’s prepared for four targets, but only one is enabled. The reason for that is simply because it’s a lot simpler to get started with JTAG when running on a single core. When you have a stable setup using a single core, then you can start playing with enabling additional cores.

...
target create $_TARGETNAME_0 aarch64 -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap -dbgbase 0x80010000 -ctibase 0x80018000
#target create $_TARGETNAME_1 aarch64 -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap -dbgbase 0x80012000 -ctibase 0x80019000
#target create $_TARGETNAME_2 aarch64 -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap -dbgbase 0x80014000 -ctibase 0x8001a000
#target create $_TARGETNAME_3 aarch64 -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap -dbgbase 0x80016000 -ctibase 0x8001b000
...

6.3 Running OpenOCD

Depending on the JTAG debugger you are using you’ll need to find and use the interface file for that particular debugger. We’ve been using J-Link debuggers and Bus Blaster successfully. To start an OpenOCD session using a J-Link device you type:

$ cd <openocd>
$ ./src/openocd -f ./tcl/interface/jlink.cfg \
-f <rpi3_repo_dir>/build/rpi3/debugger/pi3.cfg

For Bus Blaster type:

$ ./src/openocd -f ./tcl/interface/ftdi/dp_busblaster.cfg \
-f <rpi3_repo_dir>/build/rpi3/debugger/pi3.cfg

To be able to write commands to OpenOCD, you simply open up another shell and type:

$ nc localhost 4444

From there you can set breakpoints, examine memory etc (“> help” will give you a list of available commands).

6.4 Use GDB

The pi3.cfg file is configured to listen to GDB connections on port 3333. So all you have to do in GDB after starting OpenOCD is to connect to the target on that port, i.e.,

# Ensure that you have gdb in your $PATH
$ aarch64-linux-gnu-gdb -q
(gdb) target remote localhost:3333

To load symbols you just use the symbol-file <path/to/my.elf as usual. For convenience you can create an alias in the ~/.gdbinit file. For TEE core debugging this works:

define jlink_rpi3
  target remote localhost:3333
  symbol-file /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/optee_os/out/arm/core/tee.elf
end

So, when running GDB, you simply type: (gdb) jlink_rpi3 and it will both connect and load the symbols for TEE core. For Linux kernel and other binaries you would do the same.

6.5 Wrap it all up in a debug session

If you have everything prepared, i.e. a working setup for Raspberry Pi3 and OP-TEE. You’ve setup both OpenOCD and GDB according to the instructions, then you should be good to go. Start by booting up to U-Boot, but stop there. In there start by disable SMP and then continue the boot sequence.

U-Boot> setenv smp off
U-Boot> boot

When Linux is up and running, start a new shell where you run OpenOCD:

$ cd <openocd>
$ ./src/openocd -f ./tcl/interface/jlink.cfg -f ./pi3.cfg

Start a third shell, where you run GDB

$ aarch64-linux-gnu-gdb -q
(gdb) target remote localhost:3333
(gdb) symbol-file /home/jbech/devel/optee_projects/rpi3/optee_os/out/arm/core/tee.elf

Next, try to set a breakpoint, here use hardware breakpoints!

(gdb) hb tee_ta_invoke_command
Hardware assisted breakpoint 1 at 0x842bf98: file core/kernel/tee_ta_manager.c, line 534.
(gdb) c
Continuing.

And if you run tee-supplicant and xtest for example, the breakpoint should trigger and you will see something like this in the GDB window:

Breakpoint 1, tee_ta_invoke_command (err=0x84940d4 <stack_thread+7764>,
    err@entry=0x8494104 <stack_thread+7812>, sess=sess@entry=0x847bf20, clnt_id=clnt_id@entry=0x0,
    cancel_req_to=cancel_req_to@entry=0xffffffff, cmd=0x2,
    param=param@entry=0x84940d8 <stack_thread+7768>) at core/kernel/tee_ta_manager.c:534
534     {

From here you can debug using normal GDB commands.

6.6 Know issues when running the JTAG setup

As mentioned in the beginning, this is based on forks and etc, so it’s a moving targets. Sometime you will see that you loose the connection between GDB and OpenOCD. If that happens, simply reconnect to the target. Another thing that you will notice is that if you’re running all on a single core, then Linux kernel will be a bit upset when continue running after triggering a breakpoint in secure world (rcu starving messages etc). If you have suggestion and or improvements, as usual, feel free to contribute.

6.7 Physical memory map

Physical address Component
0x0 Stubs + U-boot, U-boot self-relocates to high memory
0x80000 Linux image
0x01700000 Linux DTS
0x08000000 Non-secure SHM
0x08400000 BL31
0x08420000 BL32 (OP-TEE core)

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